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Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the blood in which too many granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, build up in the bone marrow.
Normally, bone marrow cells mature into several different types of blood cells. CML affects the young blood cells (called blasts) that develop into a type of white blood cell (called granulocytes). The main function of granulocytes is to destroy bacteria. The blasts, which do not mature and become too numerous, remain in the bone marrow and blood.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia can occur over a period of months or years. A specific chromosome rearrangement is found in the cells of almost all patients with CML. Part of chromosome #9 breaks off and attaches itself to chromosome #22, so that there is an exchange of genetic material between these two chromosomes. This rearrangement changes the position and functions of certain genes, which results in uncontrolled cell growth. Other chromosome abnormalities can also be present.
CML occurs mainly in adults and is rare in children. According to the American Cancer Society, 43,050 leukemia cases are expected in 2010. CML will account for 4,870 of the cases in 2010.
What are the symptoms of chronic myelogenous leukemia?
Many people do not have symptoms in the early phase of CML. Instead, the leukemia is found during routine blood tests. When people do have symptoms from CML, the following are the most common. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
The symptoms of chronic myelogenous leukemia may resemble other blood disorders or medical problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.
How is chronic myelogenous leukemia diagnosed?
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for chronic myelogenous leukemia may include:
Treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia:
Specific treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia will be determined by your physician based on:
Treatment may include: