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Hyperthyroidism means overactivity of the thyroid gland, resulting in too much thyroid hormone in the bloodstream. The over secretion of thyroid hormones leads to overactivity of the body's metabolism. Although there are several forms of hyperthyroidism, the most common is Graves disease.
Graves disease is most often associated with hyperthyroidism and is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism found in pregnancy. Researchers believe Graves disease is caused by an antibody that stimulates the thyroid too much, in turn, causing the excess production of thyroid hormone. Graves disease is categorized as an autoimmune disorder (a dysfunction of the body's immune system). The disease is most common in young to middle-aged women and tends to run in families.
The symptoms of Graves disease are identical to hyperthyroidism, with the addition of three other symptoms. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. The three additional symptoms include the following:
The following are the most common symptoms of hyperthyroidism. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
The symptoms of hyperthyroidism may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.
Healthy thyroid glands function normally in pregnancy. Less than 1 percent of women have excessive thyroid function in pregnancy. Hyperthyroidism due to Graves disease in pregnancy tends to worsen in the first half of pregnancy, improve in the second half, and then worsen again during the postpartum period.
Uncontrolled hyperthyroidism has many effects. It may lead to preterm birth (before 37 weeks of pregnancy) and low birthweight. The most common complication is preeclampsia, a form of gestational hypertension (high blood pressure of pregnancy) in women with hyperthyroidism.
A severe life-threatening form of hyperthyroidism, called thyroid storm, may complicate pregnancy. This is a condition in which there are extremely high levels of thyroid hormone that can cause high fever, dehydration, diarrhea, rapid and irregular heart rate, shock, and death, if not treated.
Medications to treat hyperthyroidism may affect the fetus and newborn. Some medications may be associated with birth defects. It is not clear if anti-thyroid medications cause hypothyroidism (low levels of thyroid) in the fetus and newborn. Neonatal hyperthyroidism may occur in a small percentage of newborns. Although most cases are temporary and do not cause problems for the baby, careful monitoring of the baby is important.
Specific treatment for hyperthyroidism will be determined by your physician based on:
Treatment for hyperthyroidism is very specific for each patient. The goal of treatment is to maintain normal levels of thyroid hormone. Treatment may include:
Use of radioactive iodine, in the form of a pill or liquid, which damages thyroid cells is not safe in pregnancy.
Women with hyperthyroidism can increase their chances for a healthy pregnancy by getting early prenatal care and working with their healthcare providers in the management of their disease.