Hailed by many as a pathway to balance and tranquility, practicing mindfulness means being present in the moment, while also being aware of one's feelings, thoughts and bodily sensations.
While research on how mindfulness influences heart health has provided mixed results, some benefits include helping prevent cardiovascular events in people with existing heart issues.
For instance, a 2020 report published in the Annals of Behavioral Medicine, details how researchers analyzed more than 1,500 records across 16 studies that looked at the effects of mindfulness-based activities on adults living with cardiovascular disease. Compared to control groups, those who engaged in mindfulness-based activities reported improvements in blood pressure, as well as mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression and stress).
A 2012 study examined whether meditation had any effect in preventing recurrence of cardiovascular disease. More than 200 men and women with heart disease were randomly assigned to either a meditation program or health education. Those in the meditation group practiced for 20 minutes, twice a day. After following the participants for five years, researchers saw a significant 48% reduction in cardiovascular events in the meditation group compared to the health education group.
Another study found a positive association between mindfulness and a heart-healthy lifestyle. Researchers asked 302 people to assess their level of mindfulness using a scoring system. Those with high mindfulness scores had an 83% greater prevalence of good heart health.
These high-scoring individuals also scored well on the American Heart Association's indicators for cardiovascular health, which include:
- Being a nonsmoker
- Being physically active
- Having a healthy body mass index
- Eating fruits and vegetables
- Maintaining healthy cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose levels
"These preliminary findings suggest that mindful people may have a keen awareness of their bodies and thoughts," says Dr. Bryant Nguyen, a cardiologist affiliated with Sharp Grossmont Hospital. "So if someone who practices a mindful lifestyle has a craving for junk food, rather than giving in, they would have a heightened awareness of the unhealthy consequences, and find it easier to choose a healthier alternative."
The mind-heart connection
Experts propose three ways that mindfulness may directly influence cardiovascular health behaviors:
Mindfulness can help a person pay closer attention to experiences that may put them at risk for cardiovascular disease, such as smoking and diet.
Practicing mindfulness can also help in addressing difficult feelings, such as controlling cigarette cravings.
Being in tune with the physical sensations of our bodies can help us recognize factors that put us at risk for disease.
Relaxing the heart
So what is going on with the heart when we practice mindfulness?
"It is well-documented that chronic stress can negatively affect the heart," says Dr. Nguyen. "Feeling constantly stressed, anxious or upset can increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and increase levels of inflammation."
There is evidence that shows how practicing mindfulness can lower blood pressure, as well as influence how hard the heart works. A study in the medical journal Stress noted positive effects among a sample of 124 subjects who did a 15-minute mindfulness exercise. The mindfulness exercises were thought to lower blood pressure and decrease the heart's workload.
"Stress management techniques, like mindfulness, can be one of several tools to reduce the likelihood of cardiovascular disease, and live an overall healthier lifestyle," says Dr. Nguyen. "The mind-heart connection is certainly an intriguing concept. Additional findings that come from future research may help us better manage cardiovascular conditions, as well as overall health."
Learn about mindfulness and relaxation classes offered at Sharp.